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Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou, Southern Mountain population (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Canada - 2014 [Final]

10. Glossary

Note: The following terms are defined in accordance with their use in this document.

Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK):
ATKincludes, but is not limited to; the knowledge Aboriginal peoples have accumulated about wildlife species and their environment. Much of this knowledge has accumulated over many generations. This is also often referred to as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK).
Annual range for a subpopulation:
The geographic area that is occupied by a subpopulation.
Annual range for an LPU:
The combined annual ranges of all subpopulations within that LPU.
Arboreal lichens:
lichens that grow on trees.
Biological feasibility:
recovery is determined to be biologically feasible under the following circumstances: individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance; sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration; and primary threats to the species or its habitat can be avoided or mitigated.
Biophysical attributes:
habitat characteristics required by southern mountain caribou to carry out life processes necessary for survival and recovery (see Appendix C).
Current distribution (extent of occurrence):
the area that encompasses the geographic distribution of all known southern mountain caribou subpopulation ranges, based on provincial distribution maps developed from observation and telemetry data.
Disturbed habitat:
habitat showing: i) human-caused disturbance visible on Landsat at a scale of 1:50,000, including habitat within a 500 m buffer of the human-caused disturbance; and/or ii) fire disturbance in the last 40 years, as identified in data from each provincial jurisdiction (without buffer).
Early seral:
the condition of habitat that occurs directly after disturbance; early seral habitats are generally composed of grasses, forbs, shrubs and seedling trees
Extant:
a subpopulation or LPU still in existence
Extirpated:
a subpopulation or LPU that currently contains no individuals
Group:
a group of southern mountain caribou LPUs that are ecologically and evolutionarily distinct, which correspond to COSEWIC’s Designatable Units (DUs) (COSEWIC 2011). The Northern Group is made up of that portion of the Northern Mountain DUwithin the Southern Mountains National Ecological Area, and includes LPUs in west-central and north-central BC. The Central Group is made up of LPUs in the Central Mountain DU, and includes LPUs in east-central BC and west-central Alberta. The Southern Group is made up of LPUs in the Southern Mountain DU, and includes LPUs in southeastern BC.
Local Population Unit (LPU):
a cluster of subpopulations that reflects a likely larger historical subpopulation that has since declined and that has been fragmented into the currently recognized subpopulations; for subpopulations that are not clustered with other subpopulations into a larger local population unit, the local population unit is equivalent to the subpopulation
Matrix range:

Two types of matrix range are recognized:

  • Type 1 matrix range consists of areas within an LPU’s designated annual range that have not been mapped as summer (e.g. spring, calving, summer, fall/rut) or winter range. Type 1 matrix may include seasonal migration areas (or portions of migration areas) and areas of relatively lower use compared to delineated seasonal ranges.
  • Type 2 matrix range consists of areas surrounding annual ranges where predator/prey dynamics influence predator/prey dynamics in the subpopulation's annual range. Type 2 matrix range also may include areas of trace occurrences of caribou, dispersal zones between subpopulations, dispersal zones between LPUs.
Proximate cause:
the cause that is immediately responsible for the event (e.g., predation is what is causing caribou to die)
Self-sustaining LPU:
a local population unit of southern mountain caribou that on average demonstrates stable or positive population growth over the short-term (≤20 years), and is large enough to withstand random events and persist over the long-term (≥50 years), without the need for ongoing active management intervention.
Subpopulation:
a group of southern mountain caribou occupying a defined area distinguished spatially from areas occupied by other groups of southern mountain caribou.
Technical feasibility:
recovery is determined to be technically feasible when recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe.
Terrestrial lichens:
lichens that grow on the ground.
To the extent possible:
current evidence supports the conclusion that the recovery of all LPUs is technically and biologically feasible. There may be situations where recovery of a particular LPUproves to be, over time and through unforeseen circumstances, not biologically or technically feasible and as such may affect the likelihood of achieving the population and distribution objectives for some LPUs.
Undisturbed habitat:
habitat not showing any: i) human-caused disturbance visible on Landsat at a scale of 1:50,000, including habitat within a 500 m buffer of the human-caused disturbance; and/or ii) fire disturbance in the last 40 years, as identified in data from each provincial and territorial jurisdiction (without buffer).

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