Nine-spotted Lady Beetle
Scientific Name: Coccinella novemnotata
Taxonomy Group: Arthropods
Range: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec
Last COSEWIC Assessment: April 2016
Last COSEWIC Designation: Endangered
SARA Status: No schedule, No Status
Image of Nine-spotted Lady Beetle
The Nine-spotted Lady Beetle (Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) is a small beetle (4.7 – 7.0 mm) that is native to North America. Adults are readily identifiable by external morphological features: their wing covers are pale orange to red, with a dark line where the two wing covers meet. They generally have nine black spots on their wing covers, but the size and number of these spots can vary. Furthermore, the head and pronotum are black with white markings. This charismatic species was once one of the more common and widespread lady beetles in North America, playing an important role as a biological control agent of aphids and other insect pests.
Distribution and Population
The Nine-spotted Lady Beetle is a wide-ranging species occurring throughout most of southern Canada with a range that extends along the international border from Vancouver Island to southern Quebec; with northern range limits near: Quesnel, British Columbia; Edmonton, Alberta; Lake Athabasca, Saskatchewan and Roberval, Quebec. The Nine-spotted Lady Beetle also ranges across the continental United States southwards almost to the Mexican border.
Nine-spotted Lady Beetles are habitat generalists, known to consume a wide variety of prey across a wide range of habitats. They occur within agricultural areas, suburban gardens, parks, coniferous forests, deciduous forests, prairie grasslands, meadows, riparian areas and isolated natural areas. This broad habitat range reflects their ability to exploit seasonal changes in prey availability across different vegetation types.
Nine-spotted Lady Beetles have four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult, and can have two generations per year. Adults of the spring generation can undergo aestivation to avoid high summer temperatures and lay eggs in early autumn. Adults of the autumn generation congregate over winter and undergo diapause; becoming active and reproducing when temperatures warm in the early spring. This species occupies a wide ecological niche across a wide variety of habitats and temperature regimes in Canada. Little is known on the natural dispersal rates for the Nine-spotted Lady Beetle. In general, lady beetles are very mobile, display low site fidelity, and readily engage in short- and long-distance dispersal. Drivers of dispersal are a combination of prey density and environmental variables such as temperature, wind speed and rainfall. This species does not migrate. Both adult and larval stages are predatory and prey primarily on aphids. In turn, this species is also subject to predation by introduced lady beetles, other invertebrates and vertebrates, and susceptible to parasitoids and pathogens.
The specific causes of decline in the Nine-spotted Lady Beetle are unknown. Possible threats to this species include negative interactions with recently arrived non-native species, such as the Seven-spotted Lady Beetle and the Multi-coloured Asian Lady Beetle, through competition, intraguild predation or indirect effects through the introduction of pathogens. Other possible threats include direct and indirect effects of pesticide/chemical use associated with agriculture to control their main prey species aphids, and habitat loss through urban expansion, abandonment of farmland, and other human disturbances.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
4 record(s) found.
- COSEWIC Status Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Response Statements (1 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Annual Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Consultation Documents (1 record(s) found.)
COSEWIC Status Reports
COSEWIC Annual Reports
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