Scientific Name: Somatochlora hineana
Taxonomy Group: Arthropods
Last COSEWIC Assessment: May 2011
Last COSEWIC Designation: Endangered
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Image of Hine's Emerald
Somatochlora hineana, the Hine’s Emerald, is a dragonfly (Order Odonata) in the family Corduliidae, the emeralds. Adults have brilliant green eyes, a metallic green thorax with two lateral yellow stripes, and a blackish-brown abdomen. Hine’s Emerald is a globally rare species. (Updated 2017/08/30)
Distribution and Population
The extant global range of Hine’s Emerald includes Ontario and four states in the United States: Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and Missouri. Historically, it was also known from Ohio, Indiana and Alabama, where it is now thought to be extirpated. In Ontario, Hine’s Emerald is known from only a single site – the Minesing Wetlands in Simcoe County, west of Barrie. (Updated 2017/08/30)
Hine’s Emerald is restricted to calcareous wetlands (marshes, sedge meadows, and fens) dominated by graminoid vegetation and fed primarily by groundwater from intermittent seeps. Most sites have an underlying layer of dolomitic bedrock close to the surface. Some biologists believe that the habitat in Minesing Wetlands has become increasingly dry over the past 35 years and anticipated urban development in the surrounding region is considered a serious threat as a result of loss of groundwater recharge. On the other hand development appears to be restricted. There is more general agreement that invasive plants such as European Common Reed and Glossy Buckthorn are serious threats. The presence of crayfish burrows likely represents a critical component of Hine’s Emerald habitat and may be a factor limiting its distribution. (Updated 2017/08/30)
Hine’s Emerald undergoes incomplete metamorphosis involving three stages: egg, larva (nymph) and adult. Mated females lay eggs in muck and/or shallow water and the eggs hatch into aquatic larvae that live in the wetland for 3-5 years before emerging as adults. The larvae are generalist predators and feed upon a variety of other invertebrates. Once mature, larvae crawl from their aquatic environment onto an emergent plant where the adult emerges from the larval skin. The timing of adult emergence in the Canadian portion of the range likely begins somewhere between early to mid-June. Following a week-long pre-reproductive period, adults choose breeding sites and use these areas to mate and lay eggs. Adult dragonflies are aerial predators and feed on a variety of insects. (Updated 2017/08/30)
Changes in surface and sub-surface hydrology could be detrimental to populations of Hine’s Emerald if alterations of water regimes affect water to reduce or eliminate potential larval habitat. The aquifer that is believed to be the principal source of groundwater supplying the eastern portion of the Minesing Wetlands (where the only known Canadian population of Hine’s Emerald is found) is located in the uplands to the east. Proposed housing developments in these uplands are expected to reduce the baseflow of water to the wetlands, thus impacting larval habitat. Contamination of groundwater is also a potential threat to Hine’s Emerald habitat. The uplands containing the aquifer that supplies the Minesing Wetlands are primarily comprised of permeable sand and gravel formations. As a result, the source of the water supplying the eastern portion of Minesing could be contaminated by agricultural pesticides and nutrient management, faulty or degraded septic beds and potential future development pressures. Yet another threat is the likely invasion of European Common Reed, which forms dense stands in fens, virtually eliminating native biodiversity. (Updated 2017/08/30)
Federal ProtectionThe Hine's Emerald is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
6 record(s) found.
- COSEWIC Status Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Response Statements (1 record(s) found.)
- Orders (2 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Annual Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Consultation Documents (1 record(s) found.)
COSEWIC Status Reports
COSEWIC Annual Reports
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